All-India Muslim League (also known as the Muslim League)

Incorporated in December 1906 in Dacca (in modern bangladesh), the All-India Muslim League (AIML) played a leading role in the Indian independence movement and the creation of pakistan.

Allah

The Arabic term Allah is the main one used for the unique deity worshipped in the Islamic religion.

Aligarh

Aligarh (formerly Allygurh) is a city in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district. It lies 126 miles (203 km)) northwest of Kanpur and is approximately 90 miles (140 km) southeast of the capital, New Delhi. Notable as the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh is one of the largest cities in Uttar Pradesh as well as the 55th largest city in India.

Alexander the Great (356–323 B.C.E.)

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. During his time of leadership, he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire.

Algeria (Official name: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria)

Algeria officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Its capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the country's far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi).

Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib

A native of mecca, he was one of the first persons to accept Islam after Hazrat Muhammad’s (PBUH) wife Hazrat khadiJa (d. 619). He grew up in Hazrat Muhammad’s (PBUH) household and married his daughter Hazrat Fatima.

Alawid Dynasty (1668–present)

The current ruling dynasty of morocco, the Alawis are one of the few precolonial monarchies to successfully transition into the era of independent nation-states.

Alchemy (Arabic: al-kimiya)

A science that was used in the Middle Ages with the goal of changing ordinary metals into gold and with finding a universal solvent and an elixir of life.

Akbar (1542–1605

Abu al-Fath Jalal al-Din Muhammad Akbar was the third and most famous ruler of the mUghal dynasty in india.

Akhbari School

The Akhbari School was an influential branch of Shii jurisprudence (fiqh) from the 17th century to the 19th century in iran, iraq, parts of the Arabian Peninsula, and india.

Alawi

Technically meaning “pertaining to Ali” in Arabic, Alawi is a name for individuals or groups with a special attachment to Hazrat Ali ibn abi talib (d. 662).

Agriculture

Agriculture is farming—cultivating the land to produce crops and raising and caring for livestock.

Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadiyya is a controversial Islamic missionary revival movement founded by mirza ghUlam ahmad (ca. 1835–1908) in British india during the 19th century.

Ahmad Khan, (Sir) Sayyid (1817–1898)

Indian Muslim religious reformer, political figure, and educator.

Hazrat Aisha bint Abi Bakr ibn Abi Quhafa (ca. 614–ca. 678)

One of Hazrat Muhammad’s PBUH wives and a leading member of the early Muslim community.

Ajmer

Ajmer is a major Muslim pilgrimage center located in central Rajasthan in the northwest of india.

African Americans, Islam among

The first African American Muslims were slaves captured in West Africa in the 1700s and brought to the American colonies.

African languages and literature

The variety of Islamic experiences in Africa can be seen in the diversity of languages and literature through which Islam has expressed itself.

Afterlife (Arabic: al-akhira)

Afterlife beliefs are concerned with the question of what happens to a person after physical death.

Aga Khan (Agha Khan, Aqa Khan)

Aga Khan has been the honorific title used by the official leader (imam) of the Nizari Ismaili branch of Shii Islam.

Adultery

Sexual intercourse with someone other than one’s marriage partner is called zina (adultery) in Arabic.

Afghani, Jamal al-Din al-

Leading advocate for Islamic revivalism and Muslim solidarity against European imperialism in the 19th century.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a mountainous landlocked country with an area of 647,500 sq. km.

Abu Zayd, Nasr Hamid

Influential Egyptian intellectual who was forced to leave his native Egypt because of his secularist approach to interpreting the Quran and other Islamic texts.

Adab

Adab is an Arabic word for refined behavior and good manners that are to be practiced daily.

Adhan

Adhan, the Islamic call to prayer, is recited in Arabic before each of the five daily prayers from a mosqUe .

Abou El Fadl, Khaled

Leading scholar of Islamic law, religious reformer, and human rights advocate living in the United States.

Hazrat Ibrahim (English: Abraham)

One of the most important figures in Islamic sacred history is Hazrat Ibrahim, who is considered a patriarchal figure, a close “friend” of God, and, above all, a prophet and founder of the kaaba in mecca.

Abu Zayd, Nasr Hamid

First of four caliphs to rule the early Muslim community after Hazrat Muhammad’s (PBUH) death in 632.

Abd al-Raziq Ali

Abd Al-Qadir was from the Caspian region of Persia and went as a teenager to baghdad to study Hanbali law and theology; he was also attracted to the teachings of Sufi masters there.

Abduh, Muhammad (1849–1905)

Muhammad Abduh was an Egyptian religious scholar, jurist, and leader of a major social reform movement in the Muslim world who advocated a modernist reinterpretation of islam.

Ablution

Ablution involves the ritual cleansing of the body with pure water in preparation for performance of other acts of worship.

Abd al-Qadir al-Jazairi

Abd al-Qadir, the son of a Sufi shaykh of the qadini sUFi order, was chosen by his father Muhyi al-Din to lead the resistance to France’s slow-motion colonization of algeria.

Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (1077–1166)

Abd Al-Qadir was from the Caspian region of Persia and went as a teenager to baghdad to study Hanbali law and theology; he was also attracted to the teachings of Sufi masters there.

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate was a long-lived Sunni dynasty that ruled the Islamicate empire for five centuries and set the standard for Muslim rulers who came later.

Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud

Abd al-Aziz was the descendant of the Al Saud clan of central Arabia that had formed a strategic alliance with the revivalist leader Muhammad ibn abd al-Wahhab.

Venus Planet

Venus is the second planet from the Sun and is the second brightest object in the night sky after the Moon. Named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty, Venus is the second largest terrestrial planet and is sometimes referred to as the Earth’s sister planet due the their similar size and mass.

Terrestrial Planets

The four innermost planets of our solar system (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) are called the “terrestrial” planets.

Mercury Planet

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and due to its proximity it is not easily seen except during twilight. For every two orbits of the Sun, Mercury completes three rotations about its axis and up until 1965 it was thought that the same side of Mercury constantly faced the Sun.

Earth Planet

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets. The Earth is the only planet in our solar system not to be named after a Greek or Roman deity. The Earth was formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago and is the only known planet to support life.

Sindh

This is the land adjacent to the Indus River and the Thar Desert. It is, in fact, one of the oldest inhabited regions on earth, and hosted one of the worlds great pre-classical civilizations. Alexander the Great (326 BCE), Chandragupta Maurya (ca. 305 BCE), Asoka (274-232 BCE) and many others ruled this place until the first Muslim inroads into Sind in 712 CE. For almost the next three hundred years, Sind was subject to Arab caliphs, after which it was conquered by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, who conducted annual raids into India after 1000 CE.

Palestine History and Issue

The State of Palestine, also known simply as Palestine, is a partially recognized state in the Middle East. Its independence was declared on 15 November 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization




Balochistan

Baluchistan (Balochistan) is part of Pakistan surrounded by Iran in the west, Afghanistan in the north and the Indian Ocean in the south.


Kalat (Khanate of Kalat)

The Khans of Kalat were founded by a Brahui hill chieftain named Kumbar (or Kambur). His tribe was hired by Sehwa, the Raja of Kalat, a Hindu princely state, to protect against marauding tribes from the Multan, Shikarpur and Upper Sind areas.

Frontpage of New York Times

Published in
The New York Times - August 15, 1947

Frontpage of New York Times, Published in "The New York Times" - August 15, 1947

Is the sea really blue?

Our experiences suggest the colour of the sea and oceans can change markedly according to both time and place, from brilliant turquoises and whitish greens, through ultramarine, navy blues, to dishwater greys and mucky browns.

Assassination of Mr Gandhi. Jan. 31, 1948

Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by a young Hindu extremist while walking to his prayer meeting in the lawn of Birla House, New Delhi

Britain Achieves Solution in India; Leaders Accept. June 4, 1947

The procedure for dividing India, an offer of dominion status and the transfer of British power this summer, and the fact that the Indian leaders had accepted these proposals were all announced today in New Delhi and London. It was one of the most momentous days in India's long history. But overshadowing all details of the new plan is the astonishing fact that India, and almost certainly Burma -- has been kept, at least temporarily, within the framework of the British Commonwealth.

Mahatama Ghandi. Jan. 31, 1948

Monhandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in the small town of Porbandar, on the west coast of India, on October 2 1869. He belonged by birth to the Vaishya, or trading caste.

Academy

The words academy, academe, and academic derive from the fourth-century Athenian school founded by the Greek philosopher and scientist Plato.

Abbe, Cleveland

Abbe was born in New York City and educated there at City College; he later taught at the University of Michigan.

Abbe, Ernst

Abbe, who was born in Eisenach (now in Germany), came from poor parents but managed to become a lecturer at the University of Jena.

Aelian,Claudius (floruit early third century CE)

Aelian was a Roman who wrote in Greek during the first half of the third century CE.

Agathemerus (floruit first century CE)

Little is known of Agathemerus, except that he wrote the treatise Geography that has survived in fragments. Perhaps he lived at the beginning of the Common Era, making him a contemporary of Strabo.

Agriculture

Perhaps the greatest of all human revolutions in science was the invention and development of agriculture nearly twelve thousand years ago in western Asia

A

The first letter (Vowel) of all Indian languages According to the Nanartharatnamala this letter has the following meanings:-Brahma.

Abhayam

King Idhmajihva divided his kingdom Plaksadvipa into seven parts and gave them to his seven sons. Abhayam is one of the parts.

Wazir Mansion

Wazir Mansion is where the parents of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah lived at the time of his birth. The house where Mohammad Ali Jinnah spent 16 years of his childhood and youth.

Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world's first great urban civilizations. It flourished in the vast river plains and adjacent regions in what are now Pakistan and western India.

ghori Sadhus

Paradoxically named, the Aghori (“non-terrible”) SADHUS are among the most strange and frightening of all the mendicants of India.

Agni

Agni, the god of fire, is one of the most central divinities in the early Vedic tradition.

agnichayana

The agnichayana, or “ritual of building the fire altar,” was one of the grandest rituals in the Vedic sacrificial tradition; it played an extremely important role in the development of Hinduism.

Advaita

Advaita (non-dual, from the root dvi, or two) is a term used to describe the unitary philosophies and religious movements in India.

Africa, Hinduism in

Hinduism is practiced throughout the African continent but is primarily focused in South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ghana.

Agastya

Agastya was one of the Vedic RISHIs (inspired poets); his name is given as the author of several hymns in the first of the 10 chapters of the RIG VEDA.

Agehananda Bharati, Swami (1923–1991)

Swami Agehananda Bharati was an Austrian-born Hindu monk and an important scholar of Indian culture and languages.

Adhyasa

Adhyasa, or “superimposition” of an unreal thing upon a real one, is an important concept in the ADVAITA (non-dual) philosophy of SHANKARA, the renowned teacher of VEDANTA.

Adi Da Samraj

Adi Da Samraj, a U.S.-born guru, teaches his idiosyncratic philosophy and discipline to a small but devoted international following, mostly in English-speaking countries.

Adishesha (also Shesha or Ananta)

Adishesha, the divine thousand-headed serpent, is the couch for Lord VISHNU as he sleeps between eras on the vast ocean of milk.

Aditi

Aditi (she who has no limit) is one of the few goddesses mentioned by name in the RIG VEDA, the earliest extant Indian text.

Adityas

Aditya means “whose mother is ADITI,” the Vedic goddess. The father of the Adityas is usually said to be the RISHI Kashyapa, a famous Vedic rishi.

Adrishta

Adrishta literally means the “unseen,” a category in MIMAMSA and VAISHESHIKA traditions.

Abu, Mount

Mount Abu is a small peak (some 4,000 feet high) in the southwest of the Indian state of Rajasthan that figures in Hindu legend. It is especially holy to Jains.

Acharanga Sutra

The Acharanga Sutra is the first of the 12 texts accepted as canonical by SHVETAMBARA Jains.

Acharya

An acharya is any spiritual guide or teacher. In ancient times the term referred specifically to the one who initiated a student and taught him the complete VEDA or sacred literature.

Adhvaryu

The adhvaryu is the priest of the YAJUR VEDA at the traditional Vedic public ritual.

Abhidhyan Yoga Institute

The Abhidhyan Yoga Institute, also called Modern Seers, headquartered at Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, is a training center for All Embracing (Abhidhyan) Yoga.

Abhinavagupta

Abhinavagupta, who lived his entire life in the northern Indian region of Kashmir, is one of the giants of Indian philosophical and intellectual history..

Abhishiktananda, Swami

Born Henri Le Saux, Abhishiktananda was a pioneer in the field of spiritual and theological dialogue

India & Pakistan Become Nations; Clashes Continue. August 15, 1947

India achieved her long sought independence through the transfer of British power to the two dominions into which that land of 400,000,000 persons has been divided, India and Pakistan. While the ceremonies marking this major historic event were taking place communal strife continued to cast a grim shadow over future.

Gemini: The spacecraft that paved the way to the Moon

On 5 June 1966, 200 kilometres above Australia, Gene Cernan was attempting to activate one of the most ill-conceived, badly designed and dangerous pieces of equipment ever flown in space, and that is the Gemini. .

Abhaya Mudra

The abhaya mudra is an important gesture in Indian iconography. In it, the right hand is raised and opened, straight up and facing forward.

Abhedananda, Swami

The Indian monk Swami Abhedananda founded the New York City Vedanta Society at the end of the 19th century, pioneering the spread of Hindu thought in America.

Letter to the Master of the Bench, Society of Lincolns Inn by Quaid-e-Azam

Letter to the Master of the Bench, Society of Lincolns Inn by Quaid-e-Azam


Quaid-e-Azam's second wife Ruttie Jinnah's last letter to her husband

Quaid-e-Azam's second wife Ruttie Jinnah's last letter to her husband


Quaid-e-Azam's Will

This is my last Will and Testament, all other Wills and Testaments of mine stand cancelled.


Death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from New Zealand PM Peter Fraser to Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs, informing the Secretary of the text of the PMs telegram of congratulations to the Prime Ministers of Pakistan & Hindustan, August 15, 1947.


Death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Halvard Lange to the Norwegian Press Media, notifying of the Norwegian Government's condolences on the death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, September 14, 1948.








Death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Halvard Lange to Liaquat Ali Khan, Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan, September 14, 1948 .








Death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from President Harry S. Truman to Liaquat Ali Khan, Prime Minister of Pakistan, September 12, 1948.




Pakistan's Independence

Telegram from Pres. Harry S. Truman to the Quaid congratulating on Pakistan's Independence, August 15, 1947.




Appointment of Khwaja Nazimuddin as Acting Governor General of Pakistan

Telegram from President Harry S. Truman to Khwaja Nazimuddin, Acting Governor General of Pakistan, September 15, 1948.




Pakistan's Independence

Telegram from Swedish PM Tage Erlander to Liaquat Ali Khan congratulating on Pakistan's Independence, August 14, 1947.







Death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from Zafrullah Khan, Foreign Miniser, Pakistan to George C. Marshall, Secretary of State, USA, in reply to condolence message, September 19, 1948.




Pakistan's Independence

Telegram from Liaquat Ali Khan to Belgian Prime Minister in reply to telegram of August 14 1947.





Pakistan's Independence

Telegram from Liaquat Ali Khan to New Zealand Minister of Foreign Affairs in reply to telegram of Aug. 15 from New Zealand Premier, August 18, 1947.




Pakistan's Independence

Telegram from Liaquat Ali Khan to Swedish Prime Minister in reply to telegram of August 14, 1947 .





Good wishes on Pakistan's & Hindustan's Independence

elegram from New Zealand PM Peter Fraser to Prime Ministers of Pakistan and Hindustan, August 15, 1947.




Good wishes on Pakistan's & Hindustan's Independence

Telegram from New Zealand PM Peter Fraser to Prime Ministers of Pakistan and Hindustan, August 15, 1947.




Death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from George C. Marshall, Secretary of State, U.S.A. to Mohammad Ali Zafrullah Khan, Foreign Minister, Pakistan, September 12, 1948



Good wishes on Pakistan's Independence

Telegram from Hooker A. Doolittle, American Consul General (Lahore) to US Secretary of State on Lahore mourns for Quaid-e-Azam.


Death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from Charles W. Lewis, Jr., US Charge d'Affaires (Karachi) to US Secretary of State, Washington on Death of Governor General Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Appointment of Khwaja Nazimuddin as Acting Governor General.


Death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from Dept. of State, Division of South Asian Affairs to Secretary of State, September 12, 1948 - 1:37 a.m.




Lahore mourns for Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Telegram from Hooker A. Doolittle, American Consul General (Lahore) to US Secretary of State on Lahore mourns for Quaid-e-Azam.



Codicil to the Will by Quaid-e-Azam

This is my codicil to the Will. I have an account with the National Bank of India, Bombay as account No.2


Pakistan Military Awards

The military awards consist of Operational Awards, Non-Operational Awards, the Tamgha-i-Difa and the Imtiazi Sanad. In addition, campaign and commemorative medals for special occasions are instituted as and when necessary, Awards issued prior to 15 August 1947, will be governed by the rules applicable to them.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - May 23, 1936

Thank you so much for your letter which I received a moment ago. I am glad to see that your work is progressing.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - June 09, 1936

I am sending you my draft. Also a cutting from the Eastern Times of yesterday. This is a letter from an Intelligent Pleader of Guradspur.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - June 25, 1936

Sir Sikandar Hayat left Lahore a day or two ago. I think he will meet you at Bombay and have a talk with you about certain matters of importance.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - August 23, 1936

I hope my letter reached you all right. There is some talk of an understanding between the Punjab Parliamentary Board and the Unionist Party.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - March 20, 1937

I suppose you have read Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's address to the All-India National Convention and that you fully realise the policy

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - April 22, 1937

I do not know whether my letter which I posted to you about two weeks ago ever reached you. I posted it to your address at New Delhi.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - May 28, 1937

I do not know whether my letter which I posted to you about two weeks ago ever reached you. I posted it to your address at New Delhi.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - June 21, 1937

Thank you so much for your letter which I received yesterday. I know yan are a busy man; but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you so often

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - August 11, 1937

Events have made it abundantly clear that the League ought to concentrate all its activities on the North-West Indian Musalmans.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - October 7, 1937

A strong contingent from the Punjab is expected to attend The Lucknow Session of the League.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - October 30, 1937

I suppose you have already read the resolution passed by the A.I.C.C. Your move in time has saved the situation, and we are all waiting for your observations on the Congress, resolution.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - November 1, 1937

Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan with some of the members of his party saw me yesterday and we had a long talk about the differences between the League and the Unionist Party.

A Letter from Iqbal to Jinnah - November 10, 1937

After having several talks with Sir Sikandar and his friends I am now definitely of the opinion that Sir Sikandar wants nothing less than the complete control of the League

Application for membership of the All-India Muslim League by Quaid-e-Azam

Application for membership of the All-India Muslim League. By Quaid-e-Azam October 10, 1913.


Articles of TIME and NEWSWEEK on the Death of Mohammad Ali Jinnah

I have the honor to refer to the Embassy's telegram No. 475, dated September 24, 1948, regarding the issues of TIME and NEWSWEEK containing the articles on the death of Mohammad Ali Jinnah

4,000,000 People Cross the Punjab to Seek New Homes. Sep. 25, 1947

The mass migration and exchange of populations in the Punjab - Moslems moving west into Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs trekking east into India - have now reached a scale unprecedented in history. Accurate statistics are impossible to obtain, but it is reasonable to estimate that no fewer than four million people are now on the move both ways.

U.N. to Raise India's Flag At Noonday Ceremonies. August 15, 1947

Marking the emergence of India as an independent state, the United Nations will hold a brief ceremony here at which the old flag of India will be lowered and replaced by that of the new dominion.

India and Pakistan celebrate. August 15 1947

British rule in India ended after 163 years. The new Dominions of India and Pakistan are in being. At midnight in Delhi, capital of India, Louis Mountbatten ceased to be the Viceroy and became Governor General of India. It is announced in London that an earldom has been conferred on him. At midnight in Karachi, capital of Pakistan, Mr. Jinnah became Governor General of Pakistan.

Pakistan's day of rejoicing. March 23, 1956

Pakistan today celebrated the inauguration of the republic with pomp and ceremony in Karachi and fireworks and illuminations in every town and village.

The India Act. August 3, 1935

The India Bill became law yesterday. The more than Herculean task which is now at last completed began with the appointment of the Statutory Commission in 1927. From first to last our statesmanship suffered because the Secretary of State for India, sitting in Westminster, was constantly tempted to think more of the difficulties in carrying a Bill through the British Parliament than of the need for devising a Constitution not only suitable to Indian conditions but also satisfactory to India's natural aspirations.

The Sun Is the Center of the Universe

Copernicus measured and observed the planets and stars. He gathered, compiled, and compared the observations of dozens of other astronomers. In so doing Copernicus challenged a 2,000-year-old belief that the earth sat motionless at the center of the universe and that planets, sun, and stars rotated around it.

Steven Paul Jobs

Steven Paul Jobs was born in San Francisco on 24 Feb 1955, the son of two unmarried university students, Joanne Schieble and Syrian born Abdulfattah Jandali. His parents gave him up for adoption and he was taken in by a working class Californian couple Paul & Clara Jobs.

Levers and Buoyancy

The concepts of buoyancy (water pushes up on an object with a force equal to the weight of water that the object dis places) and of levers (a force pushing down on one side of a lever creates a lifting force on the other side that is proportional to the lengths of the two sides of the lever) lie at the foundation of all quantitative science and engineering.